Several risk factors (things that put you at risk) for kidney stones make it more likely that you will get them. Some of these things you can control, and others you simply cannot.
Risk factors that you can control
Factors you can control include:
- How much fluid you drink. The most common cause of kidney stones is not drinking enough water. Try to drink enough water to keep your urine light yellow or clear like water (about 8 to 10 glasses of water a day).
- Your diet. Diets high in protein, sodium, and oxalate-rich foods, such as dark green vegetables, increase your risk for kidney stones. If you think that your diet may be a problem, schedule an appointment with a dietician and review your food choices.
- Being overweight. This can cause both insulin resistance and increased calcium in the urine, which can result in a greater risk for kidney stones.
- Medicine. Some medicines, such as acetazolamide (Diamox) and indinavir (Crixivan), can cause kidney stones to form.
Risk factors you cannot control
Things you can't control include:
- Age and gender.
- Men between the ages of 30 and 50 are most likely to get kidney stones.
- Postmenopausal women with low estrogen levels have an increased risk for kidney stones. Women who have had their ovaries removed are also at increased risk.
- A family history of kidney stones.
- A personal history of frequent urinary tract infections.
- Other diseases or conditions, such as Crohn's disease, hyperparathyroidism, or gout.
- Intestinal surgery or gastric bypass surgery.
- Insulin resistance, which can occur because of diabetes or obesity.